Suicide remains a serious problem in our world today. And some researchers say suicide rates have increased during the pandemic.1 In fact, during the month of October 2020 there were more deaths in Japan from suicide than from COVID-19.2
Suicide is but one aspect of the broader problem of evil, pain, and suffering. Thus, Christians are not immune from this tragic reality. In fact, over the last couple of years you’ve probably seen news reports of evangelical pastors who died by suicide. Because my family has been touched by the tragedy of suicide, I wrote an article about the subject, specifically addressing whether suicide is a sin that can be forgiven by God.
Here is the concluding paragraph of my earlier article:
I argue, on the basis of Scripture, that God can and does forgive his children who take their lives. This affirmation of forgiveness in no way condones suicide, which is a great sin. Nevertheless, Jesus Christ’s sacrificial death atones for all the sins of his people—past, present, and future (Romans 3:25). And God will not remove his forgiving love because a mentally ill person in a state of desperation commits a terrible self-destructive deed (Romans 8:38–39). Believers in the Lord Jesus Christ enjoy God’s enduring and complete forgiveness for all their sins (2 Corinthians 5:18–19).
I received many comments on this piece. Some of them came from Christians who had lost loved ones to suicide. One such person, a father, even thanked me for helping him to think through the loss of his dear son and how God’s forgiveness related to the tragedy.
But I also had more than one person object to my theological conclusion that God forgives believers in Christ who take their own lives. Here are the (paraphrased) comments of three people who objected to my conclusion followed by my responses. My objective is not to win an argument per se but to hopefully bring insight and empathy to a very painful topic that touches many families.
Does a person with genuine confident trust in and reliance on Christ take their own life? Wouldn’t real faith in Christ translate into a hope that sustains the will to live, the will to honor and serve our Savior, the will to persevere through the valley of the shadow of death? Isn’t growth in sanctification one that climbs higher overall, closer to God, not down and away into suicide?
While I am not a mental health professional, after much study and reflection on this difficult topic from a theological and psychological perspective, my answer to your first question is yes. I have known Christians who have died by suicide. Christians are not immune to serious mental health challenges or even to despair itself. Sometimes despair overwhelms their faith to the point of not being able to take the pain any longer.
Sometimes that despair may be the result of mental illness or great trauma, abuse, addiction, or a combination thereof. The person feels a great sense of mental and soul sorrow.
Human fallenness and brokenness are profound. Original sin shouldn’t be underestimated. Salvation and sanctification are not guarantees that Christians will not struggle deeply. I’ve known Christians who were combat soldiers with PTSD and for me to tell them to just strive harder at their sanctification wouldn’t be sufficient or compassionate.
I’ve talked with people who were in their darkest hour. I had compassion on them and I’m confident that God, in his infinite love, does as well. The wonderful thing about God is that he loves even those who engage in self-destructive acts. God’s grace (unmerited favor) is rich, deep, and evident in the person of Jesus Christ. That grace causes me to empathize with a person’s deep mental suffering.
What about 1 Corinthians 3:16–17 which specifically states that our bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit and anyone who destroys the body will be destroyed by God? How do you see that verse?
As a Christian theologian and apologist, I attempt to understand Scripture within its proper context.
The biblical commentaries I’ve consulted concerning 1 Corinthians 3:16–17 indicate that the temples of God the apostle Paul is speaking about are to be understood corporately as the church and not as individual human bodies. Thus, God will punish those who damage or fracture the church. So, this passage seems to have no application to the issue of suicide.
You can’t know with certainty that every suicide victim who is a Christian goes to heaven or is rescued from hell after they sin. “You shall not kill” is in the Bible. I know the atoning death of Jesus is all-powerful so I guess the issue is: is repentance required for the blood of Jesus to cleanse away sin? And would that be possible even after the soul/spirit leaves the body and the person has not repented?
The Hebrew is translated: “You shall not murder.” Suicide is self-murder but it is likely done by people who are psychologically ill and thus not in full control of their mental faculties. I read Scripture as indicating that God forgives all the sins of his people including the tragic cases of suicide in which one cannot repent. Does anyone ever perfectly repent of all their sin? Sinners are sometimes oblivious of their sins (pride, envy, selfishness).
Leaning on Hope
Suicide is an especially painful tragedy for surviving family and friends. And when a Christian takes their life it raises genuine theological issues. In such difficult circumstances it is reassuring to hear the apostle Paul’s extraordinarily comforting words:
For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers,neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Romans 8:38–39).
As Christians we long for the time when “‘He [our God] will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death’ or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away” (Revelation 21:4).
Reflections: Your Turn
If you are contemplating suicide or know of someone who is, someone at the Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-8255) is available to chat right now (24/7).
Have you known Christians who have struggled with suicidal thoughts?
- Here are two helpful articles on the topic of suicide, especially for Christians: “Is Suicide the Unpardonable Sin?” “The Truth about Suicide.”
- For more about Christianity and mental health, I recommend the Mark P. Cosgrove and James D. Mallory Jr. book, Mental Health: A Christian Approach.
- Ann John et al., “Trends in Suicide during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” BMJ 2020, no. 371 (November 12, 2020): m4352, doi:10.1136/bmj.m4352.
- “More People Died of Suicide in Japan in One Month Than the Entire Coronavirus Pandemic,” FOX News (November 28, 2020).